This document describes an overall enterprise access model that includes context of how a privileged access strategy fits in. For a roadmap on how to adopt a privileged access strategy, see the rapid modernization plan (RaMP). For implementation guidance to deploy this, see privileged access deployment
The enterprise IT organization manages and supports the workloads and the infrastructure they are hosted on, whether it's on-premises, on Azure, or a third-party cloud provider, creating a management plane. Providing consistent access control to these systems across the enterprise requires a control plane based on centralized enterprise identity system(s), often supplemented by network access control for older systems like operational technology (OT) devices.
For these systems to create business value, they must be accessible to internal users, partners, and customers using their workstations or devices (often using remote access solutions) - creating user access pathways. They must also frequently be available programmatically via application programming interfaces (APIs) to facilitate process automation, creating application access pathways.
Finally, these systems must be managed and maintained by IT staff, developers, or others in the organizations, creating privileged access pathways. Because of the high level of control they provide over business critical assets in the organization, these pathways must be stringently protected against compromise.
The enterprise access model supersedes and replaces the legacy tier model that was focused on containing unauthorized escalation of privilege in an on-premises Windows Server Active Directory environment.
The enterprise access model incorporates these elements as well as full access management requirements of a modern enterprise that spans on-premises, multiple clouds, internal or external user access, and more.
This progress also holds true when we look at the total number of people without electricity access. In 2015, the total number without electricity fell below one billion for the first time in decades; very likely the first time in our history of electricity production.3
Progress has been fast. 1.26 billion got access to electricity for the first time in their lives between 2005 to 2016. Broken down to average daily change this means that on any average day in the last 11 years there were 314,770 people who got access to electricity for the first time in their lives.4
Here we see a regional shift in electricity access over the past few decades: in 1990, nearly half (45 percent) of people in the world without access lived in South Asia. By 2016 this had shifted significantly: the largest share now lives in Sub-Saharan Africa (which is now home to nearly two-thirds of the world population without electricity access).
The map shows the share of households with access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking across the world. This share has been increasing for most countries at low-to-middle incomes, however, rates of increase vary by country and region. Access to clean fuels are lowest in Sub-Saharan Africa where only 14% of households in 2016 had access. Progress has been much more significant in South Asia and East Asia over the last decade, with 18% and 16% of additional households gaining access, respectively.
Whilst access to electricity is an important metric to monitor (especially within a development context) it is insufficient in itself as a true measure of energy equity. Besides the fact that electricity is only one dimension of energy consumption (the others being transport and heating fuel), electricity access metrics provide no measure of levels of generation.
In the scatterplots here we see the relationship between access to electricity, and access to clean cooking fuels measured against average income (GDP per capita). In both metrics we see a strong positive correlation: energy access is low in poorer countries, and increases as incomes increase.
Access to electricity has been increasing globally, with most of this increase coming from low-to-middle income economies. However, access to electricity is not equally distributed between rural and urban demographics.
In the chart we have plotted the percentage of the rural population with electricity access (on the y-axis) versus the percentage of the urban population with access (x-axis). Countries which lie below the grey line have lower access in rural populations relative to access in urban areas. Nearly all lie below this line, meaning that for most nations electricity access in urban areas is higher than in rural regions.
Number of people with access to electricity in 2005: 5,240,786,150Number of people with access to electricity in 2016: 6,504,588,805This is an average increase of 114,891,150 per year or 314,770 per day.
The minimum levels of consumption necessary to be considered as having electricity access based on International Energy Agency (IEA) methodology is 250kWh per year for rural households, and 500kWh per year for urban households. IEA methodology and definitions available online.
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Licenses: All visualizations, data, and articles produced by Our World in Data are open access under the Creative Commons BY license. You have permission to use, distribute, and reproduce these in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. All the software and code that we write is open source and made available via GitHub under the permissive MIT license. All other material, including data produced by third parties and made available by Our World in Data, is subject to the license terms from the original third-party authors.
Establish trust between users, devices and apps for a seamless user experience. Easily enable dozens of access policy combinations that leverage Workspace ONE device enrollment, network and SSO policies, automated device remediation and 3rd party information.
Access keys are long-term credentials for an IAM user or the AWS account root user. You can use access keys to sign programmatic requests to the AWS CLI or AWS API (directly or using the AWS SDK). For more information, see Signing AWS API Requests in the Amazon Web Services General Reference.
As a best practice, use temporary security credentials (IAM roles) instead of creating long-term credentials like access keys, and don't create AWS account root user access keys. We don't recommend generating access keys for your root user, because they allow full access to all your resources for all AWS services, including your billing information. For more information, see Best Practices for AWS accounts in the AWS Account Management Reference Guide.
Access keys consist of two parts: an access key ID (for example, AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE) and a secret access key (for example, wJalrXUtnFEMI/K7MDENG/bPxRfiCYEXAMPLEKEY). You must use both the access key ID and secret access key together to authenticate your requests.
If you still need to use long-term access keys, you can create, modify, view, or rotate your access keys (access key IDs and secret access keys). You can have a maximum of two access keys. To follow best practices, rotate the access keys regularly. For more information, see Rotating access keys.
When you create an access key pair, save the access key ID and secret access key in a secure location. The secret access key is available only at the time you create it. If you lose your secret access key, you must delete the access key and create a new one. For more details, see Resetting lost or forgotten passwords or access keys for AWS.
Manage your access keys securely. Do not provide your access keys to unauthorized parties, even to help find your account identifiers. By doing this, you might give someone permanent access to your account.
On the Access key best practices & alternatives page, choose your use case to learn about additional options which can help you avoid creating a long-term access key. If you determine that your use case still requires an access key, choose Other and then choose Next.
(Optional) Set a description tag value for the access key. This adds a tag key-value pair to your IAM user. This can help you identify and rotate access keys later. The tag key is set to the access key id. The tag value is set to the access key description that you specify. When you are finished, choose Create access key.
On the Retrieve access keys page, choose either Show to reveal the value of your user's secret access key, or Download .csv file. This is your only opportunity to save your secret access key. After you've saved your secret access key in a secure location, choose Done.
In the Access keys section find the key you want to deactivate, then choose Actions, then choose Deactivate. When prompted for confirmation, choose Deactivate. A deactivated access key still counts toward your limit of two access keys.
In the Access keys section, find the key you want to delete, then choose Actions, then choose Delete. Follow the instructions in the dialog to first Deactivate and then confirm the deletion. We recommend that you verify that the access key is no longer in use before you permanently delete it.
To create an access key, choose Create access key. If the button is deactivated, then you must delete one of the existing keys before you can create a new one. On the Access key best practices & alternatives page, review the best practices and alternatives. Choose your use case to learn about additional options which can help you avoid creating a long-term access key. If you determine that your use case still requires an access key, choose Other and then choose Next. On the Retrieve access key page, choose Show to reveal the value of your user's secret access key. To save the access key ID and secret access key to a .csv file to a secure location on your computer, choose the Download .csv file button. When you create an access key for your user, that key pair is active by default, and your user can use the pair right away. 041b061a72